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Azeen welcomes TrueTube to the East London Mosque and we’re given the full tour. Azeen talks about the features of a traditional mosque and shows us how Muslims pray.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices – Beliefs and teachings - Islam - Salah and its significance: how and why Muslims pray including times, directions, ablution (wudu), movements (rak’ahs) and recitations; salah in the home and mosque and elsewhere; Friday prayer: Jummah; key differences in the practice of salah in Sunni and Shi’a Islam, and different Muslim views about the importance of prayer. Hajj: the role and significance of the pilgrimage to Makkah including origins, including the Ka’aba at Makkah,

Area of Study 3 – Islam - Section 1: Muslim Beliefs -Salah as one of the Five Pillars, including reference to Surah 15: 98–99 and 29:45: the nature, history, significance and purpose of Salah for Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, including different ways of understanding them; how Salah is performed including ablution, times, directions, movements and recitations, in the home and mosque and Jummah prayer.

Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah. The importance of practices - Islam as a way of life, lived in total submission to Allah • The importance of the Five Pillars of Islam to Sunni Muslims • The meaning of the Five Pillars: •• Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith •• Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day •• Zakat/Zakah: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the needy •• Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan •• Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca • The analogy of the house and pillars

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Part A Islam - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam -Prayer/ Salat  Adhan call to prayer, praying at mosque and Friday Jummah prayer (Qur'an 15:9899, 29:45)  Praying at home, private prayer (Du'ah)  The preparations and intention for prayer: wudu and niyyah  The significance and symbolism of the different prayer positions that make a rakat (sequence of prayer) Obligatory Acts  Shahadah: the Muslim profession of faith in Allah and the prophet Muhammad; occasions when the Shahadah is recited, e.g. aqiqah ceremony, conversion to Islam  Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit others, what zakat tax may be used for, and additional charity (saddaqah)  Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan. How and why Muslims fast during Ramadan and rules about halal and haram diet (Qur'an 2:183)

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 3: Islam - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam: practices in Britain and elsewhere - Salah: the practices of prayer in Islam in the mosque and at home, including Jummah prayer: Qur'an 15:98-99, Qur'an 29:45

Holy Cribs – Mosque

Azeen:    Welcome to the East London Mosque. My name is Azeen. I'm a Muslim. My religion is called Islam. This is where I come to worship Allah, which is what we call God. Come on in. I'll show you around. The inside of the building is always kept clean as a sign of respect to Allah. So the first thing I do is take off my shoes and leave them in these racks here. Girls and women should also cover their heads with a scarf called a hijab inside the mosque. A lot of boys and men like to wear a little cap like this, called a topi. As well as keeping the building clean, we like to keep ourselves clean too. So before I pray, I come in here to do a special wash called wudu. So I sit in front of one of these taps and I wash my hands, face and feet three times. Now I'm ready to go into the main prayer hall. The first thing you notice, there isn't much in here. This building is called a mosque or masjid, which both mean a place of prostration. Prostration is when someone bows down with their forehead right on the floor. And all Muslims do this when we pray, as a sign of complete obedience to Allah. So a prayer hall just needs to be a big open space where lots of people can sit on the floor to say their prayers.

 

There's nice thick carpet so we're comfortable when praying and there's these lines across it, which we stand on in rows. This gives us enough space to prostrate so we don't bump into the people in front. Wherever we are in the world, all Muslims face the city of Makkah in Saudi Arabia when we pray. That's because the first ever building used to worship Allah, called the Ka'bah, is in Makkah. It's a symbol of togetherness that all Muslims everywhere are concentrating on the same holy place and praying to Allah. The direction of the Ka'bah in Makkah is called the qibla and you can work out using the compass. But here in the mosque there's an easier way. This archway is called the mihrab and it's always in the wall facing the qibla. The person who leads the prayers in a mosque is called an imam, and he'll stand in front of the mihrab to say the prayers out loud. The mihrab reflects his voice back into the room so that everyone can hear him, because, of course, he'll be facing Makkah too. Muslims pray five times a day just before sunrise, just after midday, mid-afternoon, just after sunset and at night before going to bed. I could do that anywhere, as long as I'm in a clean place or have somewhere to lay down a prayer mat. But lots of people like to come here to pray with other people. About quarter of an hour before the prayer is due to start, a man called a muezzin will call people to prayer by reciting the adhan.

 

In Muslim countries, this could be heard from loudspeakers outside so the local people know to stop what they're doing and get over to the mosque. Traditionally, and it's still done in some places, the muezzin will climb the stairs to the top of a tower called a minaret to give the call. Minarets are still a common feature of mosques, even though the muezzin often uses a microphone these days. In the UK, you usually only hear the adhan inside the building. But here at East London Mosque, the daytime calls are broadcasted outside as well. Just before the prayer starts, there's another call which is called the iqamah. On Fridays, people make a special effort to come to the midday prayers because the imam does a special talk called a khutbah, and he'll do it from this platform here, which is called a minbar. Above the prayer hall, traditional mosques have a dome. This helps the imam's voice carry to all parts of the room and in hot countries allows the hot air to rise to keep everyone else cool. And some say that the dome is a reminder of heaven above us, and they are often most beautifully decorated. You won't see any pictures of people or animals inside the mosque, because when Islam started in Arabia hundreds of years ago, most people worshipped statues and pictures. So Muslims wanted to show they were different because they worshipped Allah who couldn't be seen. So instead, mosques are often decorated with passages from the Qur'an, which is a holy book, is written in a very old form of Arabic, which looks beautiful when written out like this. The art of beautiful writing is called calligraphy, and some of the oldest and most beautiful calligraphy in the world is in Arabic. You might also see geometrical patterns like geometry in maths. These are amazingly complicated designs made up of different shapes, and they are often symmetrical. Or there are sometimes patterns that look like leaves and branches twining around each other and over the building. That sort of design is called arabesque. Men and women pray separately in the mosque, so they are concentrating on Allah and not on each other. Sometimes the women will have an area at the back of the main prayer hall or a gallery, or like we've got here: the women have their own separate room. Education and learning are very important to Muslims. So we have a classroom here where I come to a madrassah, that's school in Arabic. I'm learning Arabic so that I can read the Qur'an in its original form and not just a translation. And that's my mosque, out here you can see the dome and minaret standing proudly as part of our community. Thanks for coming, bye.

Holy Cribs: The Mosque

Video length - 07.33
Published date - Mar 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

Watch Azeen practise and describe a rak’ah – the positions that Muslims perform during prayer.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices – Beliefs and teachings - Islam - Salah and its significance: how and why Muslims pray including times, directions, ablution (wudu), movements (rak’ahs) and recitations; salah in the home and mosque and elsewhere; Friday prayer: Jummah; key differences in the practice of salah in Sunni and Shi’a Islam, and different Muslim views about the importance of prayer.

Area of Study 3 – Islam Section 1: Muslim Beliefs - Salah as one of the Five Pillars, including reference to Surah 15: 98–99 and 29: 45: the nature, history, significance and purpose of Salah for Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, including different ways of understanding them; how Salah is performed including ablution, times, directions, movements and recitations, in the home and mosque and Jummah prayer."

Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah - Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah. The importance of practices - Islam as a way of life, lived in total submission to Allah • The importance of the Five Pillars of Islam to Sunni Muslims • The meaning of the Five Pillars: •• Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith •• Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day •• Zakat/Zakah: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the needy •• Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan •• Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca • The analogy of the house and pillars

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Part A Islam - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam -Prayer/ Salat  Adhan call to prayer, praying at mosque and Friday Jummah prayer (Qur'an 15:9899, 29:45)  Praying at home, private prayer (Du'ah)  The preparations and intention for prayer: wudu and niyyah  The significance and symbolism of the different prayer positions that make a rakat (sequence of prayer) Obligatory Acts  Shahadah: the Muslim profession of faith in Allah and the prophet Muhammad; occasions when the Shahadah is recited, e.g. aqiqah ceremony, conversion to Islam  Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit others, what zakat tax may be used for, and additional charity (saddaqah)  Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan. How and why Muslims fast during Ramadan and rules about halal and haram diet (Qur'an 2:183)

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 3: Islam - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam: practices in Britain and elsewhere - Salah: the practices of prayer in Islam in the mosque and at home, including Jummah prayer: Qur'an 15:98-99, Qur'an 29:45

Holy Cribs – Prayer Positions

Azeen:    Salah the duty to pray five times a day. We could do it anywhere as long as we've done a wudu and the place we're in is clean and we've got the space to do the movements I'm about to show you. In the prayer hall of a mosque. The carpet is often marked with rectangles for people to stand in or lines across a floor, so everyone has enough space to pray and do the movements without bumping into the people around them. At home I just use a prayer mat. When we pray, we must face the direction of the Ka'bah, which is a cube shaped holy building in the center Makkah in Saudi Arabia. This direction is called the qibla and in a mosque you could tell the qibla by facing the mihrab, which is an archway in the wall at the front of the prayer hall. We pray five times a day. And as well as saying the words in Arabic, we also show our devotion to Allah. First, I should have the intention to pray, which is called the niyyah. So I focus and get myself into the right frame of mind. Then I say Bismillah and the prayer begins. I raised my hands and then lowered them while I say Allahu Akbar. This is called takbir. I'll stand and this is called qiyam. Then I bow from the waist. This is called ruku. Then comes sujud or sajdah, when I kneel down and put my forehead on the floor. This is called prostration in English. I return to the kneeling position called jalsa. Then I prostrate again. And finish in the kneeling position. And that series of movements is called a raka'ah. I'll stand and do more rak'ah's and the number depends on which prayer I'm saying. Each of the positions goes a bit further in showing total submission to Allah. When the prayer is finished and I'm kneeling at the end of the final rak'ah I turn to my right and then my left to say, salam. Peace be with you. After the prayer in Arabic. I can also say my personal prayers in English. And this is called du'a.

 

Islam: Prayer Positions

Video length - 02.55
Published date - Mar 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

Before Muslims pray, they should always perform a special wash called wudu. Watch Azeen as he demonstrates and describes how he does it.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices – Beliefs and teachings - Islam - Salah and its significance: how and why Muslims pray including times, directions, ablution (wudu), movements (rak’ahs) and recitations; salah in the home and mosque and elsewhere; Friday prayer: Jummah; key differences in the practice of salah in Sunni and Shi’a Islam, and different Muslim views about the importance of prayer.

Area of Study 3 – Islam - Section 1: Muslim Beliefs - Salah as one of the Five Pillars, including reference to Surah 15: 98–99 and 29:45: the nature, history, significance and purpose of Salah for Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, including different ways of understanding them; how Salah is performed including ablution, times, directions, movements and recitations, in the home and mosque and Jummah prayer."

Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah. The importance of practices - Islam as a way of life, lived in total submission to Allah • The importance of the Five Pillars of Islam to Sunni Muslims • The meaning of the Five Pillars: •• Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith •• Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day •• Zakat/Zakah: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the needy •• Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan •• Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca • The analogy of the house and pillars

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Part A Islam - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam -Prayer/ Salat  Adhan call to prayer, praying at mosque and Friday Jummah prayer (Qur'an 15:9899, 29:45)  Praying at home, private prayer (Du'ah)  The preparations and intention for prayer: wudu and niyyah  The significance and symbolism of the different prayer positions that make a rakat (sequence of prayer) Obligatory Acts  Shahadah: the Muslim profession of faith in Allah and the prophet Muhammad; occasions when the Shahadah is recited, e.g. aqiqah ceremony, conversion to Islam  Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit others, what zakat tax may be used for, and additional charity (saddaqah)  Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan. How and why Muslims fast during Ramadan and rules about halal and haram diet (Qur'an 2:183)

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 3: Islam - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam: practices in Britain and elsewhere - Salah: the practices of prayer in Islam in the mosque and at home, including Jummah prayer: Qur'an 15:98-99, Qur'an 29:45

Holy Cribs - Wudu

Azeen:    When Muslims pray, we do a special wash called wudu as a symbol that we are pure and ready to speak to Allah. We wash our hands, face and feet three times, but it's done in a particular way, in a particular order. We sit here in front of one of these taps because if possible, we prefer to do our wudu using running water so we're not washing ourselves in water that someone else might have washed in. First I say Bismillah, which is a short prayer in Arabic. In English it goes in the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. I'll wash my hands thoroughly. First, the right three times. Then the left three times. I rinse out my mouth three times. I rinse my nose by snuffing water into my nostrils and blowing out three times. I wash my face three times, all of it from the bottom of my chin to my hairline. Starting with my right arm. I wash from the wrist to the elbow three times. And then I'll do the same with my left arm. I run my wet hands over my hair. Then wipe my ears inside and out. And then the back of my neck. Then I wash my right foot three times up to the ankle. And my left foot three times. Finally, I say the Shahadah, which is another short prayer in Arabic. In English it goes. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And now I'm ready to pray.

Islam: Preparing to Pray

Video length - 02.49
Published date - Mar 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

How Islam began in under ten minutes? Not a problem. The turbulent tale is told against the clock, with all the names, dates and events on a timeline. Animation by Ceiren Bell.

TrueTube films are designed for use in a number of ways. Some ideas of where this film could link to your curriculum are below:

 

AQA

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teachings and practices- Islam - Practices, Duties and Festivals. Tawhid - (the Oneness of God), Qur’an Surah 112 Hajj: the role and significance of the pilgrimage to Makkah including origins, how Hajj is performed, the actions pilgrims perform at sites including the Ka’aba at Makkah, Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah and their significance.

 

Edexcel

Area of Study 1- Islam - Section 1: Muslim Beliefs - Islam - The nature of Allah: how the characteristics of Allah are shown in the Qur’an and why they are important: Tawhid (oneness), including Surah 16: 35–36, immanence, transcendence, omnipotence, beneficence, mercy, fairness and justice, Adalat in Shi’a Islam.
Section 3: Living the Muslim Life - Islam Hajj as one of the Five Pillars: the nature, role, origins and significance of Hajj, including Surah 2: 124–130; 22: 25–30; how Hajj is performed and why Hajj is important for Muslims; benefits and challenges from attending Hajj for Muslims."
OCR
Componet Group 2–Religion, philosophy and ethics in the modern world from a religious perspective - the existence of God, gods and ultimate reality, and ways in which God, gods or ultimate reality might be understood; through revelation, visions, miracles or enlightenment. Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah. The importance of practices - Islam as a way of life, lived in total submission to Allah • The importance of the Five Pillars of Islam to Sunni Muslims • The meaning of the Five Pillars: •• Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith •• Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day •• Zakat/Zakah: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the needy •• Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan •• Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca • The analogy of the house and pillars
WJEC
2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Part A - Islam - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Beliefs - The Nature of God  Allah as one God: Tawhid (Qur'an 3:18)  The qualities of Allah in the Qur'an; e.g. immanence, transcendence, omnipotence, beneficence, merciful (Qur'an 46:33), the 99 names of Allah  The meaning of Islam as 'submission' to Allah and how Muslims live a life in submission to the will of Allah, including the importance of Greater Jihad  Shahadah as a statement of faith in Allah, shirk as sin against Allah  Reasons for the prohibition of images of Allah or any human figure
Eduqas
Component 3 (Route A): Study of a World Faith: Option 3: Islam:The Nature of Allah ➢ The teaching about the nature of Allah: the belief in the oneness of Allah (Tawhid): Qur'an 3:18 ➢ Nature of Allah: immanence, transcendence, omnipotence, beneficence, mercy, fairness and justice: Qur'an 46:33 ➢ Adalat in Shi'a Islam Prophet hood (Risalah) ➢ The nature of prophet hood; why are prophets important? Qur'an 2:136 ➢ The importance of Adam as the first prophet ➢ Ibrahim as father of Isaac and Ishma'il and his significance for the Muslim religion ➢ Isa as a prophet for Muslims: Qur'an 2:87 ➢ Muhammad as the seal of the Prophets Angels (Malaikah) ➢ The significance of angels in Islam: Qur’an 2:97-98,Qur’an 2:285 ➢ Diversity in belief between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims regarding angels and free will ➢ The significance of Jibril's revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad: Qur’an 2:97-98 ➢ The significance of Mika'il placed in charge of plants and rain ➢ The significance of Israfil to announce the Day of Resurrection Akhirah (Afterlife) ➢ Al-Qadr (Predestination):Implications for human freedom ➢ Akhirah: Human responsibility and accountability; Muslim beliefs and teachings about the afterlife ➢ Human Freedom and its relationship to Day of Judgement ➢ Heaven; Muslim beliefs about the nature, stages and purpose of heaven ➢ Hell; Muslim beliefs about the nature and purpose of hell. Festivals and commemorations: practices in Britain and elsewhere ➢ Id-ul-Adha: The festival of sacrifice. How Muslims celebrate IdulAdha in Britain and worldwide ➢ Id-ul-Fitr: The festival of fast-breaking following Ramadan. How Muslims celebrate Id-ul-Fitr in Britain and worldwide ➢ Ashura: The Day of Remembrance (Shi'a). How Shi'a Muslims celebrate Ashura in Britain and worldwide ➢ The Night of Power: the importance of the revelation of the Qur'an and how it is viewed and treated in Islam

How Islam Began – In Ten Minutes

How Islam began in under ten minutes. Not a problem. We've started. Okay, so travel back in time with me to a land far, far away. And long, long ago. Mecca and Arabia, but the year 570. Makkah is important for two reasons. One, the Kaaba is there, an ancient temple built to worship God, and two, Muhammad, peace be upon him, was born in Makkah. Now, problem, I can't show you Muhammad because it wouldn't be right. I'll tell you why in a bit, but in the meantime, here's his name in Arabic. Nice.

Back in the day, Makkah was a lawless place. The only way to be safe was to have backup. Lots of rich big brothers who'd beat up anyone who got in your way. So the place was ruled by the most powerful families who could do pretty much what they wanted. And religion didn't help. By this time, the Kaaba had been filled to overflowing, with 360 idols that did nothing to help anyone. So it was a tough place to grow up if, like Muhammad, you were a poor orphan and believed in just one God you couldn't see, like the Jews and the Christians. He called him Allah, the God, in Arabic there.

Muhammad's dad died before he was even born, and his mom died when he was just six. So he was brought up by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib. And then when he died too, by his uncle Abu Talib, who had the respect of the city's ruling families, so Muhammad was safe, for the time being. Muhammed started out as a shepherd and then became a businessman, travelling about, buying and selling stuff for rich clients. When he did some work for a rich widow called Khadijah, she was so impressed by his honesty and skill that they ended up getting married, and for a while it looked like Mohammed was going places, well he was, but not how you think.

Every year in the month of Ramadan, different calendar, different names for the months, there was a big party around the Kaaba. When people made sacrifices to the idols, Mohammed hated it, so he'd get out of town and sleep in a cave he'd found on top of a nearby mountain. One night, Mohammed's praying to Allah when, wham, there's the angel Jibril, you might say Gabriel, standing right in front of him. 'Read' says the angel, but Mohammed couldn't read, no schools, you see, Jibreel keeps on at him. Three times he says 'read'. Then he grabs hold of Muhammad and wham! Again, it's like Muhammad's learnt the words off by heart. So he recites the message out loud, read in the name of your Lord, who created man from a drop of blood. Read, for your Lord is most generous. He who taught by the pen taught man what he did not know. It was a message from Allah. God was speaking to him just like he'd spoken to the prophets in the Jewish and Christian holy books, which meant he was a prophet too.

The messages continue for the rest of Muhammad's life. Allah gave him the words to say and the prophet recited them. The words were written down by his friends, and years later they were collected together and became the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, which means recitation because Muhammad recited it, you see. Anyway, that was much later, so back to the night of power. Muhammad tells his family, then his friends, and eventually everyone about Allah that he's a one and only God, that he wants everyone to be treated fairly, and long story short, it didn't go down well with the ruling families of Makkah, who liked things just the way they were, thank you very much. You see, Islam means obedience to Allah and Muslim means someone who obeys Allah. And the ruling families didn't want anyone obeying anyone else but them. So the people who believed in Muhammad's message, the Muslims, were given a hard time. Some were even tortured and killed. A few of them managed to escape to Abyssinia, Ethiopia, but most were stuck in Makkah.

Muhammad also had to cope with the death of his wife, and then just a few weeks later, his uncle too. Feeling very down, he went to the carpet to pray to Allah one night. Then the weirdest thing happened. Jibril turns up, sits him on a winged horse called Al-buraq and flies him all the way from Makkah to Jerusalem. He prays with all the prophets who have ever lived. Then he's taken up to the heavens to chat with some of the prophets, and then into Paradise itself, where Allah tells Muhammad to pray five times a day and to stay strong. He's returned to Jerusalem, and then flies back to the Kaaba in Makkah. We call it the night journey, and Muslims still argue whether it was a real experience or a vision, but whatever. It gave Muhammad a much needed boost, and just as well, because there were more tough times ahead. So there was this other city called Yathrib. The people there heard about Muhammad and his message and invited him and his followers to join them. A few at a time, the Muslims left Makkah and made a dangerous journey across the desert to Yathrib. It's known as the Hijra, which means migration, you know, like birds do.

Muhammad and a few of his friends stayed in Makkah until everyone had got away, and then made plans for their own escape. But, the ruling families wanted to kill Muhammad while they still could, so seven sons, one from each family, was sent in the middle of the night to stab the prophet while he slept. But he was way ahead of them, and when they burst into the house, Muhammad was gone. Trackers were sent out to hunt him down. Muhammad and his best friend Abu Bakr took a roundabout route to try and shake off the pursuit, but the trackers were too good and slowly gained on them, so Muhammad and Abu Bakr hid in a cave and pray that no one found them. The trackers found the cave all right, but they didn't bother going in to search. There was no way Muhammad could be inside they thought. There was a spider's web over the mouth of the cave, and a nesting bird at the entrance. He must have given them the slip, so off they went, leaving Muhammad and Abu Bakr protected by a spider and a bird.

Muhammad made it safely to Yathrib, which was renamed Medinat-ul-Nabi, the city of the prophet, but most people just call it Medinah, but Muhammad's worries weren't over yet. There were three big battles between the Muslims and the Meccans. First, the Battle of Badr, when Muhammad and just 313 men faced 1000 Meccan soldiers. Miraculously, the Muslims won. Then, there was a battle of Uhud, which didn't go so well. Some of Muhammad's men disobeyed his orders, and ran off during the battle to evade the Meccans camp, and so the Muslims were outmanoeuvred. Then, there was the battle of the trench. Medinah was protected on three sides by mountains, so when the Meccan forces advanced in the city, the Muslims just dug a deep trench. The Meccans made camp, but the weather was terrible. Pouring rain put out their fires and howling winds blew down their tents. Eventually they gave up, and went back to Mecca. It was all a bit embarrassing. They were losing the respect of the local tribes who were flocking to join the Muslims. So a peace treaty was signed at Hudaibiya, but it wasn't long before the Meccans broke it. Muhammad decided that enough was enough. By now he had over 10,000 men, so he led them across the desert to Makkah. The ruling families realised they'd made a huge mistake, but it was too late. All they could do was surrender and hope that the Muslim army killed them quickly. But Muhammad said there should be no more fighting. He rode into Makkah and went straight to the Kaaba. He circled it seven times anti-clockwise and smashed all the idols, rededicating the Kaaba to Allah, and that's why I'm not going to show you Muhammad. The Muslims wanted to make it totally clear that they only worship the one unseen God, so they didn't have any pictures of Muhammad in case anyone thought he was an idol and they didn't have any pictures of Allah because he's like nothing on earth, so it would be impossible to draw him anyway. So there you go, how Islam began in under ten minutes. How did I do?

How Islam Began – In Ten Minutes

Video length - 8.04
Published date - Sep 2013
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

What is Sacrifice?

What is most precious to you? What would you be willing to sacrifice? What have you sacrificed? Members of the public share their stories.

What is Sacrifice?

Video length - 02.30
Published date - Oct 2010
Keystage(s) - 3 and 4
Downloadable resources