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The arti ceremony is a form of worship that happens in Hindu temples every day – also known as “an offering of light”. A young Hindu called Pranathi explains it all.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices: Hinduism - Different forms of worship: puja and arati - The rituals of puja and arati and their significance for Hindus.

Area of Study 2 – Hinduism - Section 3: Living the Hindu Life - The nature and purpose of prayer in the temple and the home: the nature, features of use and purpose of the different forms of worship, including meditation, puja, havan, darshan, arti, bhajan, kirtan and japa, with reference to interpretations of Bhagavad Gita 6.44–47; divergent understandings of the benefits for Hindus of having different forms of worship.

Component Group 1 - Beliefs and teachings & Practices - Hinduism - Approaching deity •Different Hindu understandings of the role,forms and importance of the following types of worship: •• Havan or homa •• Puja •• Meditation •• Japa •• Bhajan or kirtan •• Darshan • The nature and importance of sacred places and spaces for Hindu worship: •• Temples •• Shrines •• Sites of pilgrimage •• Outdoors •• Hills and rivers

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Hinduism - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices Worship  Features and importance of daily puja in the home: (Bhagavad Gita 3:19, 4:38)  Features and importance of congregational puja in the mandir (including devotions to the murti, arti and havan)  Diversity in Vaishnavite and Shaivite worship  Significance of bhakti  Role, importance and features of pilgrimage to Varanasi

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 2: Hinduism - Places of worship in Britain and elsewhere ➢ Features and importance of daily puja in the home ➢ Features and importance of congregational puja in the mandir ➢ Diversity of views and practices: Vaishnava and Shaiva bhakti ➢ Hindu mandirs in Britain compared to those in India ➢ Features and importance of worship at outdoor shrines Worship/meditation ➢ The significance of different forms of worship/meditation; havan, puja, arati, darshan Bhagavad Gita 9.26, bhajan/kirtan, japa: Bhagavad Gita 3.19, 4.38, 6.11–12 ➢ The importance of focuses of worship and representations of the divine; one god, other deities, holy land, plants and animals: Bhagavad Gita 16.24 ➢ Honouring Gurus and elders

Holy Cribs - Hinduism - The Arti Ceremony

Pranathi: Welcome to the Shree Ganapati Temple for the Aarti ceremony. This is a form of puja or worship that happens every day. It's sometimes called an offering of light because the pujari or priest uses a special lamp with five wicks to perform the ceremony. He lights the five flames, which symbolize the five traditional elements of Earth, air, fire, water and space. The Pujari waves the lamp in front of the deities while singing the Aarti prayer, and everyone joins in with the singing. And by ringing bells and blowing on a Shankar. A Shankar is a conch, a huge seashell. And if you blow into it the right way, it makes a sound like a trumpet. Mortis of the God Vishnu are often holding a conch shell, which symbolizes that God brings life out of the water. The lamb is taken to the main vimana or shrine first and waved in front of the deity. And in our mother, that is Ganesha, the God of wisdom. Then the lamp is taken around all the other deities too. We are showing our love for the deities. And in return we believe that their energy and love for us passes into the flames of the lamp. At the end of the ceremony, the Pujari takes the lamp around the people here so we can pass our hands over the flames to receive the blessing. .

 

Hinduism: The Arti Ceremony

Video length - 02.05
Published date - May 2023
Keystage(s) - 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

A young Hindu called Pranathi explains how all the items on a puja tray are used during worship.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices: Hinduism - Different forms of worship: puja and arati - The rituals of puja and arati and their significance for Hindus.

Area of Study 2 – Hinduism - Section 3: Living the Hindu Life - The nature and purpose of prayer in the temple and the home: the nature, features of use and purpose of the different forms of worship, including meditation, puja, havan, darshan, arti, bhajan, kirtan and japa, with reference to interpretations of Bhagavad Gita 6.44–47; divergent understandings of the benefits for Hindus of having different forms of worship.

Component Group 1 - Beliefs and teachings & Practices - Hinduism - Approaching deity •Different Hindu understandings of the role,forms and importance of the following types of worship: •• Havan or homa •• Puja •• Meditation •• Japa •• Bhajan or kirtan •• Darshan • The nature and importance of sacred places and spaces for Hindu worship: •• Temples •• Shrines •• Sites of pilgrimage •• Outdoors •• Hills and rivers

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Hinduism - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices Worship  Features and importance of daily puja in the home: (Bhagavad Gita 3:19, 4:38)  Features and importance of congregational puja in the mandir (including devotions to the murti, arti and havan)  Diversity in Vaishnavite and Shaivite worship  Significance of bhakti  Role, importance and features of pilgrimage to Varanasi

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 2: Hinduism - Places of worship in Britain and elsewhere ➢ Features and importance of daily puja in the home ➢ Features and importance of congregational puja in the mandir ➢ Diversity of views and practices: Vaishnava and Shaiva bhakti ➢ Hindu mandirs in Britain compared to those in India ➢ Features and importance of worship at outdoor shrines Worship/meditation ➢ The significance of different forms of worship/meditation; havan, puja, arati, darshan Bhagavad Gita 9.26, bhajan/kirtan, japa: Bhagavad Gita 3.19, 4.38, 6.11–12 ➢ The importance of focuses of worship and representations of the divine; one god, other deities, holy land, plants and animals: Bhagavad Gita 16.24 ➢ Honouring Gurus and elders

Holy Cribs – The Vimana and Puja Tray

Pranathi: A murti is a statue of a deity, a god or goddess. And Hindus like me use these to help us worship. This is Ganesha, the elephant headed God of wisdom, and he has his own vimana or shrine, which is a small space dedicated to him containing all the things we use to worship him. The murti's are treated as honoured guests and they'll be washed, decorated and given offerings of food every day as signs of respect to the deities they symbolise. Each one of the deities represents one aspect of the personality of the one unseen spirit. Brahman Puja is the name we use for worship or prayer. We often use a tray to hold all things we use in puja. There might be fruit, rice, flowers. Water, a lamp, ash, Kumkum, powder, incense, a bell, all kinds of things to touch, taste, smell here and look at. All five senses are involved as a symbol that the whole person is devoted to the deity. We ring a bell to wake up the murti and to bring people to join in the puja. We have a lamp because light symbolizes enlightenment or understanding. We often use a lamp that burns ghee, which is clarified butter and it smells great. Incense smells great, too. And we burn it in the Mandir and in our homes to purify the air, hiding any nasty smells. It also creates the sort of atmosphere that I've grown up associating with worship. So it helps me get in the right frame of mind. The flowers also smell nice and bring color to the Vimana. A water pot called a kamandalu, and the spoon are used to wash the muthi. And a red powder called kumkum and sandalwood paste are used to anoint the muthi and to make the tilaka marks on our foreheads to show we have been blessed. Prasad is food like fruit nuts or sweets that are offered to the murthis and then shared out to the worshippers after puja. We believe that the deity blesses the food during the puja, so when we eat the Prasad, we receive the blessing.

Hinduism: The Puja Tray

Video length - 03.00
Published date - May 2023
Keystage(s) - 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

Holy Cribs: The Mandir

Pranathi gives TrueTube a tour of The Shree Ghanapathy Mandir in South London, explaining its most important features and her beliefs as a Hindu.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices: Hinduism - Different forms of worship: puja and arati - The rituals of puja and arati and their significance for Hindus.

Area of Study 2 – Hinduism - Section 3: Living the Hindu Life - The nature and purpose of prayer in the temple and the home: the nature, features of use and purpose of the different forms of worship, including meditation, puja, havan, darshan, arti, bhajan, kirtan and japa, with reference to interpretations of Bhagavad Gita 6.44–47; divergent understandings of the benefits for Hindus of having different forms of worship.

Component Group 1 - Beliefs and teachings & Practices - Hinduism - Approaching deity •Different Hindu understandings of the role,forms and importance of the following types of worship: •• Havan or homa •• Puja •• Meditation •• Japa •• Bhajan or kirtan •• Darshan • The nature and importance of sacred places and spaces for Hindu worship: •• Temples •• Shrines •• Sites of pilgrimage •• Outdoors •• Hills and rivers

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Hinduism - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices Worship  Features and importance of daily puja in the home: (Bhagavad Gita 3:19, 4:38)  Features and importance of congregational puja in the mandir (including devotions to the murti, arti and havan)  Diversity in Vaishnavite and Shaivite worship  Significance of bhakti  Role, importance and features of pilgrimage to Varanasi

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 2: Hinduism - Places of worship in Britain and elsewhere ➢ Features and importance of daily puja in the home ➢ Features and importance of congregational puja in the mandir ➢ Diversity of views and practices: Vaishnava and Shaiva bhakti ➢ Hindu mandirs in Britain compared to those in India ➢ Features and importance of worship at outdoor shrines Worship/meditation ➢ The significance of different forms of worship/meditation; havan, puja, arati, darshan Bhagavad Gita 9.26, bhajan/kirtan, japa: Bhagavad Gita 3.19, 4.38, 6.11–12 ➢ The importance of focuses of worship and representations of the divine; one god, other deities, holy land, plants and animals: Bhagavad Gita 16.24 ➢ Honouring Gurus and elders

Holy Cribs: The Mandir

Pranathi: Welcome to the Shree Ghanapathy Temple. My name is Pranathi and I'm a Hindu. This is a temple or mandir and my dad is one of the priests here, so it's like a second home to me. We come here to worship Brahman, the one supreme spirit which we believe lives in all things. We worship many forms of Brahman, but this temple is especially dedicated to Lord Ganesha. Traditional mandirs usually have a gateway or a tower called a gopuram, which lets you know you're entering a special place. You may also find a statue of an animal or god outside. This is Ganesha, the elephant headed god of wisdom. This is the normal entrance for the mandir. The word mandir comes from the word 'house' in the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit. We think of the temple as a home for the deities, what we call the gods and goddesses that are inside. When we come into the temple, we respect it like you would when entering the home of a very important person. The entrance area of the mandir is called an ardhamandapa. It's where we take off our shoes and leave them in these racks. This is so we can keep the inside of the building as clean as possible, as another sign of respect. Also, some girls and women like to cover their heads when they come into the mandir. As people enter, they will often ring a bell to announce their arrival, just like you would ring on someone's doorbell.

On special occasions, we will open the main doors of the temple and you'll often see people bending down to touch the steps before they enter. In India, it's tradition that we touch the feet of those we respect, and the step represents the feet of the deities. By the door, this is Bhairavar. He is the protector or guardian of our temple. This is the mandapa, the main prayer hall of the mandir. All around the mandapa, there are deities. Each one has a shrine or vimana, which is a small area of worship. A statue of a deity is called a murti. We treat them as honoured guests, and so they are washed, decorated and given offerings of food every day, as signs of respect to the gods or goddesses they represent. I said outside that we worship one supreme spirit called Brahman who was a part of all things. So each one of the deities is Brahman in human or animal form. They show us many different ways to understand Brahman.

 

This mandir is dedicated to Ganesha, but most mandirs will have a murti of Ganesha near the door. He is a very popular deity because he removes obstacles or problems in people's lives. This is Shiva with his wife, Parvati. We also have murtis of Vishnu and we believe he has come to Earth in different forms. So here he is, as Krishna with Radha. And as Rama with Sita. Puja is the Hindu name for worship or prayer.

A tray is often laid out with various objects to help Hindus in their worship. Fruit, rice, flowers, water, a lamp, holy ash and kumkum powder, incense, a bell. There will be items to touch, taste, smell, hear and look at. All five senses are involved as a symbol that the whole person is devoted to the deity. Prasad is food like fruit, nuts or sweets that is offered to the murtis and then shared out after the puja. We believe that the deities bless the food during the puja. And so if we eat the prasad we will be blessed too. Take a sniff. Incense is burned in mandirs to purify the air, hiding any nasty smells. It also creates an atmosphere that always makes me think of puja. So it helps me to get in the right frame of mind to pray. The main shrine at the front of the mandapa is called a garbha griha, which means womb house. It symbolises the womb or heart of the body because we believe it gives life to the whole mandir. Inside the garbha griha will be a murti of the main deity that the mandir is dedicated to; the deity that most people come to this mandir to worship, which in our case is Ganesha. There is a space or corridor around the garbha griha called the pradakshina. This is so people can walk clockwise all around it. It shows that just like the shrine is at the centre of the circle I'm making as I walk around it, Ganesha is at the centre of my life. Directly above the garbha griha, some mandirs have a spire on the roof called a shikara, or they might even have several shikaras above all the different shrines. They symbolise the Himalayas, the mountains in India, where the deities were believed to live. In fact, shikara means 'mountain peak'. Some mandirs have flags, and the colour of the flags show which deity the mandir is dedicated to. So orange for Shiva and his family, which includes his son Ganesha; and red and white stripes for Swaminarayan.

 

Our priests traditionally come from the Brahmin varna, the top varna or caste in the Indian class system. He's called a pujari, someone who leads puja. This is the arti ceremony. The pujari uses a lamp with five wicks to symbolise the five traditional elements of earth, air, fire, water and space. He waves it in front of the murtis while chanting a prayer. And people ring bells and blow a shankha. A shankha or conch is a huge seashell. And if you blow into it properly, it makes... That sound. The lamp is blessed by the deities during the arti prayer, and then it's taken round the mandapa for us to pass our hands over the flames and then touch our heads to show that we are accepting the deity's blessing.

Mandirs are usually full of decorations and symbols. This one is called the Om, which represents Brahman, the one unseen spirit. The lotus flower grows out of a muddy riverbed to float on the surface, looking all beautiful. So it symbolises that we should try to be pure, even when the world around us is often polluted. And the swastika which represents the sun and God's blessings. Although this one is often misunderstood because it was used by the Nazis in the Second World War, it's a shame because the symbol of blessing was turned into a symbol of hate. But that's not what it means to me. Many mandirs have a hall or other rooms attached that can be used for meetings, education, festivals and lots of other events. And that's it. Thanks for coming to the Shree Ghanapathy Temple. Don't forget your shoes. Thanks for coming, guys. Bye.

 

Holy Cribs: The Mandir

Video length - 08.24
Published date - May 2023
Keystage(s) - 3 and 4
Downloadable resources
Holy Cribs: The Vihara
A young Buddhist called Hivin welcomes TrueTube to his Vihara in West London. We’re given the full tour while learning about Buddhist beliefs and worship, and even get to see the monks who live there.

Component 1: The study of religions - beliefs, teaching and practices: Buddhism - The nature, use and importance of Buddhist places of worship - Temples, shrines, monasteries (viharas), halls for meditation or learning (gompas) and their key features including Buddha rupa, artefacts and offerings.

Area of Study 3 – Buddhism - Section 3: Living the Buddhist Life - Features of Buddhist places of worship: the divergent nature, history and design of Buddhist places of worship, including temples, gompas, viharas, shrines in Theravada, Mahayana and Triratna Buddhism; how and why the places of worship are used, including reference to the shrine room, shrine facing east, and the library, showing the importance learning, including reference to the Kimsila Sutta. Puja: The nature and purpose of puja in the vihara and the home, including reference to Mangala Sutta; examples of the different types; when each type might be used and why; the importance of having different types of worship and their use in different Buddhist contexts.

Component Group 1–Beliefs and teachings & Practices - Buddhism-Practices - Sacred and significant places and spaces for Buddhists •The importance ,features and functions of: •• Temples •• Gompas and viharas •• Shrines •• Sites of pilgrimage •• Artefacts and offerings •• Retreats •The events that take place in different significant places, including Bodh Gayaand the Deer Park at Sarnath •The meaning and significance of key artefacts and offerings made at different significant places,includingthedifferentimages of the Buddha and his hand positions( mudras) • The purpose and form of retreats • The importance of undertaking pilgrimages • Common and divergent emphases placed on significant places and spaces by different Buddhist groups, including the role and importance of retreats •Different interpretations and emphases given to sources of wisdom and authority by different Buddhist groups

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Part A - Buddhism - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices Places of 'Worship' and Puja  The importance of features and functions of a vihara/home shrine  Diversity of practices in Theravada and Mahayana puja (Buddha, buddhas, bodhisattvas, mudras, mantras, mandalas)  Dana (giving) – opportunity to make offerings of food to monks.  Examples of the work of sanghas in Wales (Swansea, Cardiff, Raglan)

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 1: Buddhism - Practices - Buddhist places of worship in Britain and elsewhere ➢ The importance of features and functions of temples and viharas; statues, shrines, stupa and meditation area. Mahayana and Theravada Buddhist temples in Britain compared to those in countries where Buddhism is widely practised. ➢ Offerings: food, light, flowers, incense, offerings of food to monks (dana)

Holy Cribs: The Vihara

 

Hivin:     Hello and welcome to the London Buddhist Vihara. My name is Hivin and I'm a Buddhist. My religion is called Buddhism and our holy building is often called a temple, but the proper name for it is a vihara. And I'm going to show you around. Come on in. The first thing we do is take off our shoes and leave them on this rack. We do this to keep the inside of the building as clean as possible, as a symbol of purity. A vihara is a Buddhist monastery, a place where Buddhist monks live and we do have monks living here. The proper name for a monk is a bhikkhu. Bhikkhus are people who have decided to devote themselves into a spiritual life of simplicity and meditation. Come with me. This is a shrine room. It's the most important part of a vihara or any Buddhist temple. We come here to do puja, which means worship, and to meditate in front of a shrine which contains a statue of the Buddha. The Buddha is not a god. He was a man named Siddhartha Gautama, a royal prince who lived in Nepal about 2500 years ago. The title Buddha means enlightened one or awakened one because we believe that he discovered the truth about the world, how to live a happier and better life. We follow the Buddhist teachings, what we call the dhamma, and we give offerings of flowers, candles, incense, fruit and rice to a statue to show our respect for him. During puja, everyone sits on the floor as a sign of humility and equality. There might be clean sheets spread out on the floor or mats or cushions for people to sit on, so we are comfortable and ready to begin. We often chant words or phrases called sutras, which come from our holy books. This helps us to get into the right frame of mind for meditation, which is a very important part of Buddhism.

 

Meditation is concentrating or thinking deeply, and there are lots of different ways to do it. Meditation helps us to learn how our minds work so we can be like the Buddha and see the world for what it is and how to be happier. I can't control what goes on out there, but I can learn to control what goes on in here. We use bells to start or end a meditation and they can come in lots of different shapes and sizes. Like this bowl shaped one here. These are used because if I hit it. The sound goes on for ages, getting quieter and quieter, and I love it. It really helps me calm down and concentrate on my meditation. Buddhism has a lot of symbols to help us remember the dhamma, the Buddhist teachings, and to help us meditate. The eight spoked wheel is probably the most important and the best known. It's called the Dhamma Wheel, and it represents the noble Eightfold Path; eight principles that the Buddha taught us to live by: Right Understanding; Right Thought; Right Speech; Right Action; Right Livelihood; Right Effort; Right Mindfulness; and Right Concentration. This is a stupa. Really big ones are put up in places that are special to Buddhists, like where the Buddha was born or died or visited. Sometimes there are holy books or holy objects inside. For instance, things that used to belong to the Buddha, like clippings of his hair. Little stupas like this may also have something inside, but the shape itself has lots of different meanings. The eight rings around the top are another reminder of the Eightfold Path, which points towards the sky to symbolise the journey towards enlightenment. Which is when you know the truth about the world like the Buddha did. Some

 

Buddhists use a prayer wheel. It has sutras, words from a holy books, written around the outside and you hold the handle and spin it around. As it turns, the words are spread out into the air to bless everyone around. You sometimes get big ones to touch the walls or even turned by windmills or water wheels. Sutras are also written or printed onto flags which are hung up outside so that the wind can carry the blessings away to everyone. And we also have the stripey flag. The colours all have a meaning. Blue stands for peace and compassion. Yellow for the dhamma. Red for blessing. White for purity. Orange for wisdom. And all five together stand for unity. Mandala means circle or centre. Some Buddhists use these patterns to help them meditate. They are full of symbols with lots of different meanings. You see lotus flowers a lot in Buddhist art. Lotus flowers symbolise purity because they grow out of the mud at the bottom of lakes and rivers and float above it all, looking beautiful. It reminds us to be pure in an impure world. Welcome to our library. We have lots of holy books and books about the holy books. The most important are called the Tripitaka because that's where we find the teachings of the Buddha. My favourite is called the Dhammapada. These books were originally written in Pali, which was a language that used to be spoken during Buddha's time. And traditionally they were written on palm leaves. So we get these old odd shaped books with long, thin pages. And this is our meeting hall. We have lots of events here, like festivals and fundraisers for charity. Everything we do in the vihara is to help the Sangha, the community, and to support the bhikkhus who teach us and help us to become better Buddhists. Thanks for coming. You're welcome anytime. Bye.

 

Holy Cribs: The Vihara

Video length - 06.38
Published date - May 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

What are British Values? What do they mean? The government says they are: democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, respect for different beliefs – and that they should be taught in schools. TrueTube took to the streets during the late Queen’s Jubilee to test who actually even knows that (?!), in a series of voxpop interviews. But before revealing the answers, we asked the people what they personally think defines ‘Britain’…

British Values

Great Britain. The British Isles. Britannia. We all know what it means to be British. And of course, we all share the same values.

 

Whoa, hang on. Do we, though? It seems to me there's a lot of debate about that.

 

Well, you can't get more British than Shakespeare.

 

What about music festivals?

 

Bangers and mash.

 

Barbecues in the rain.

 

Seaside holidays.

 

Chicken tikka masala.

 

Bagpipes.

 

Seagulls.

 

Royal Guards.

 

Folk music.

 

British bulldog. Taxis.

 

Carnival. Bowls. British Values. What do you think they are and what do they mean? We sent a film crew out onto the streets of London during the late Queen Elizabeth's Platinum Jubilee to ask random people some key questions about Britain's identity. Are you British?

 

I am. Yes.

 

Yes. Yes.

 

Yes recently. This is the fifth year that I'm living in the UK and I am applying for becoming British. That's why I am still learning from it. I'm from Iran.

 

I'm as English as they come.

 

Yes. In education. In values. And in understanding the system. Yes.

 

I'm Welsh, actually, I'm from Wales. I now live in Newcastle. But yeah, British through and through.

 

Yes.

 

No. We are from India. And we are just students here. Master students.

 

Yes.

 

No.

 

I am British, born in Scotland, but I classify myself as British. British subject.

 

What do you think of when I say Britain?

 

The Queen, the castle and the corgi.

 

Uh... good humour.

 

Football.

 

Rain. Although it's not raining.

 

The bus. The red bus. Of course. Yeah.

 

You have a pretty flag.

 

Traditional royal telephone. I mean, not royal.

 

Number one is the monarchy because there is no other country on the planet Earth that has a constitutional monarchy that has that unique arrangement between parliament, the ministers and monarchy.

 

What do you think Britain's values are?

 

There ain't any - that's the problem eh.

 

With things like democracy, it's obviously really important for our country. And we see around the world where that isn't the case. You know, and how sad that is.

 

Fairness. That means everybody has a say. Everybody has a part.

 

Hospitality. Accommodating all people from all around the world, I mean me as well. And the second thing is that they're very kind and very warm.

 

Today everyone's out being patriotic, isn't it? But yeah. Any other day. No, no one's too English are they.

 

Being kind? Um, help each other and go to the pub and have fun.

 

British values used to be according to scripture, according to the Bible.

 

When we talk about British, we're talking about generosity. Caring. And consideration for other people. Humanity. Humanity. Everything. Multiculture. Multiculture. Yes, of course. Yeah.

 

I think there's a stigma with British. I think for a lot of people it's probably being well spoken. I think it's being quite upper class, and I think that stigma hopefully has now gone.

 

Um having your own individual views. Teaching children that they should have a right to be heard and we should listen to them and respect their views and they should therefore respect the views and the rights of other people that they're growing up with.

 

Next, we told them the government's four official British values: democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those of different faiths and beliefs.

 

I think they're very good. They should stick to them.

 

Yeah, I see it in everyday aspects of my life. I can feel it and touch it. Yeah. All these four values, especially democracy.

 

Are the British living up to those values?

 

Tries to.

 

Yeah. Yes they are. Yeah.

 

No. Do we hell. No, no, not at all, I don't think so.

 

I think generally the majority of people want to. Whether our leaders do is another matter.

 

Well, you can't live up to them if you forget God, see if you forget God in your life, you live a life of sin.

 

They've been supportive for us. And they are always ready to accept everyone from any country or anything like.

 

I wouldn't agree to that.

 

Yeah. No, I don't think fully.

 

Yeah. Rule of law, I think that's a difficult one. I think you should learn enough I think this day and age, and especially down to being able, like, competent when you leave school, to be able to say, well, what is right and wrong?

 

Not, not every member of the country is equal under the law. And especially those in power. Which is quite hypocritical of them.

 

You can't preach something and then not do it.

 

Democracy can be quite a big thing in terms of what we have that other countries necessarily don't. And I think sometimes that can be in a positive or a negative manner.

 

Sometimes there are only poor choices, but we still have to make a choice.

 

The actual concept of monarchy is completely contradictory to democracy as a sentiment. It's just one person who has arbitrary power.

 

We're supposed to be the United Kingdom, but in my opinion, we are now the perverted kingdom. The situation is now that lying has been institutionalised in the political realm.

 

You definitely feel that our British values have been lost. It seems.

 

Not lost, destroyed.

 

What examples are there of British values in action?

 

I got a neighbour. She's almost about 70 years old, and she told me that she's going to throw a party for the elderly people that are living in the care house - care homes. And she's doing very much in order to prepare food for these parties, for the platinum Jubilee parties. And I'm so excited to see how she's keen to prepare everything for people.

 

Where we live near Tynemouth, the north coast, there's some groups that support people who are struggling with mental health and they do that by going wild swimming early in the morning. So there's groups for children and for adults to get into the water on the North Sea. Right. Pretty cold and doing that, fresh, in the morning, in the middle of winter, is really helpful for your mental health.

 

Through work, you know we have the values of treating everyone fairly, making sure that, you know, that we take everyone at face value, that nobody, you know, like pre-judging or down to, you know, anything to do with religion or ethnicity or anything like that. And I think you need to have those values going forward because everybody's equal on that point. So hopefully that's what the next generation will see.

 

Any country's values change with time and vary from person to person. Traditions matter more to some than others.

 

Ha! Indeed they do.

 

But new traditions need the chance to evolve. What do you think of the government's official values and what makes Britain 'Britain' in the 21st century?

 

British Values

Video length - 7.27
Published date - Apr 2023
Keystage(s) - 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

The Torah is the Jewish holy scripture, and the scrolls play a central role in services at the synagogue. Zack and his rabbi demonstrate how the Torah is read, and the way a scroll is “dressed” afterwards to show its importance.

Component 1 - The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices - Judaism - Introduction to Judaism - Introduction to the idea of common and divergent views within Judaism. The synagogue and worship. Shabbat in the home and synagogue and its significance. Worship in the home and private prayer. The synagogue and worship - The written law (Tenakh) and the oral law (Talmud) and their study, use and significance in daily life.

Area of study 2 - Section 3 -Living the Jewish Life - Judaism - The nature and purpose of Jewish public acts of worship: the nature, features and purpose of Jewish public worship, including interpretations of Psalm 116:1219; the nature, features and importance of synagogue services for the Jewish community and the individual. Features of the synagogue: the nature, history and purpose of the different design of the synagogues in Liberal, Reform and Orthodox Judaism, including facing Jerusalem, layout of seating the Ark and the bimah and with reference to Proverbs 14:28; how and why the synagogue is used by the different communities, including reference to Exodus 27:20–21; how and why objects of devotion are used within the synagogues, including a yad, Torah Scroll, ner tamid and menorah. Section 3: Living the Jewish Life -The nature and purpose of Jewish public acts of worship: the nature, features and purpose of Jewish public worship, including interpretations of Psalms 116:12–19; the nature, features and importance of synagogue services for the Jewish community and the individual.

Component Group 1 - Judaism - Practices -Worship• The structure of the synagogue service •The importance of the synagogue, in relation to the following religious features: •• Design •• Artefacts •• Synagogue services •• The role of the synagogue within the Jewish community •• Worship in the home •• The place of worship in the home •The significance of the Ark, the Bimah, the lack of representation of G-d, the Ner Tamid and the Mikveh • The nature and importance of the Torah readings, other readings, prayers and sermons •The connection between the synagogue and the Temple • Issues related to worship and the synagogue, including the length and structure of synagogue services and different uses of Hebrew in the service • Common and divergent emphases placed on the features of a synagogue by different Jewish groups, including separating women and men in an Orthodox synagogue •Different interpretations and emphases given to sources of wisdom and authority by different Jewish groups Prayer• The role and importance of prayer in Jewish worship, including the Amidah (the standing prayer) • The role and importance of private prayer for Jews • The importance of: •• The three daily periods of prayer •• The concept of spontaneous prayer •• Recitation of the Shema •• Recitation of Grace after meals •• Teaching children to pray •• The direction faced when praying •• Prayer and the observance of the Mitzvot in the home • The importance of prayer for praise, confession, thanks giving and supplication.

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Judaism - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Worship in the home and synagogue  The importance of the synagogue: internal features- aron hakodesh (ark), ner tamid, bimah, Torah, Ten Commandments, seating  Reading of the Torah during synagogue worship  Diverse practices within Orthodox and Reform synagogues – worship and the role and gender of the Rabbi  The importance of the home for worship in Judaism: challenges and benefits of observing Shabbat (Exodus 20:8-10)

Component 3 (Route A) - Option 4: Judaism - Practices - The Synagogue ➢ Features of different synagogues in Britain: significance of bimah, aron hakodesh, Torah scrolls, ner tamid, seating, minyan; Exodus 20:4-5

Judaism: The Torah Scroll

Zack:      The reading of the Torah is the most important part of a service in a synagogue because we believe that it contains God's words. So a Torah scroll is treated with great respect, almost like a king. And before it's put away, it will be dressed in a robe and a crown. This is to protect it, but also to remind us of how important it is. Dressing or undressing. The Torah is called Galilee in Hebrew, and it usually takes two people to do it. One person rolls up the scroll and carefully lifts it up by the bottom handles of the rollers. Then another person can start the dressing by tying a sash or belt around the middle to keep the two rollers together.

This belt is called a Haggadah or a garter. Then the scrolls are covered with a mantle which is usually made from a rich material like velvet and often beautifully embroidered. There were two holes in the top for the handles of the rollers to poke through. In some shawls, a brass plate or hosen in Hebrew is added over the mantle. This is like a silver apron or bib on a chain and represents the breastplate that the priests used to wear in the temple in Jerusalem before it was destroyed nearly 2000 years ago. Sometimes the Yad the pointer will be hung over the top. Finally, the top of the tallest bar will be adorned with a crown. This might be an actual crown called a kettle that fits over the top of both roller handles or two finials or decorated caps that go on each handle. These are called Raman, which means pomegranates in Hebrew because they are often made to look like fruit called pomegranates. People used to believe that there were 613 seeds in each pomegranate, one for each of the commandments in the Torah. Now the scroll is carried very carefully to the Ark or the A1, which is a special cupboard at the front of the show where all the scrolls are kept and then the doors of the ark are closed.

Judaism: The Torah Scroll

Video length - 02.28
Published date - Apr 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

Some Jews wear little leather boxes called tefillin on the head and arm when they pray. Zack demonstrates how he ties his tefillin, and explains why he wears them.

Component 1 - The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices - Judaism - The synagogue and worship. Public acts of worship including: Synagogue services in both Orthodox and Reform synagogues; The significance of prayer, including the Amidah, the standing prayer.

Area of study 2 - Section 3: Living the Jewish Life -The nature and purpose of Jewish public acts of worship: the nature, features and purpose of Jewish public worship, including interpretations of Psalms 116:12–19; the nature, features and importance of synagogue services for the Jewish community and the individual.

Component Group 1 - Judaism - Practices -Worship• The structure of the synagogue service •The importance of the synagogue, in relation to the following religious features: •• Design •• Artefacts •• Synagogue services •• The role of the synagogue within the Jewish community •• Worship in the home •• The place of worship in the home •The significance of the Ark, the Bimah, the lack of representation of G-d, the Ner Tamid and the Mikveh • The nature and importance of the Torah readings, other readings, prayers and sermons •The connection between the synagogue and the Temple • Issues related to worship and the synagogue, including the length and structure of synagogue services and different uses of Hebrew in the service • Common and divergent emphases placed on the features of a synagogue by different Jewish groups, including separating women and men in an Orthodox synagogue •Different interpretations and emphases given to sources of wisdom and authority by different Jewish groups

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Judaism - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Worship in the home and synagogue  The importance of the synagogue: internal features- aron hakodesh (ark), ner tamid, bimah, Torah, Ten Commandments, seating  Reading of the Torah during synagogue worship  Diverse practices within Orthodox and Reform synagogues – worship and the role and gender of the Rabbi  The importance of the home for worship in Judaism: challenges and benefits of observing Shabbat (Exodus 20:8-10)

Component 3 (Route A) - Option 4: Judaism - Practices - The Synagogue ➢ Features of different synagogues in Britain: significance of bimah, aron hakodesh, Torah scrolls, ner tamid, seating, minyan; Exodus 20:4-5

Judaism: Tefellin

Zack:      These are Teffillin in sometimes called fill actuaries, which are small black leather boxes on leather straps. Kosher leather, of course. Inside these boxes, there were little scrolls containing words from the books of Deuteronomy and Exodus, written in Hebrew. Some Jews wear these on their arm and head when they pray at home in the morning. There are different ways to put them on, but this is how I do it. The first Teffillin was just one strap. Traditionally goes on my left arm, so it's close to my heart. Some Jews say that you can use your weaker arm. So it's the left if your right handed or the right if your left handed. I roll up my sleeve so I can wear that to fill in against my skin and place the box on my bicep. So it's about halfway down my upper arm and level with my heart. Then I say a blessing and wrap the strap three times around my upper arm. And then seven times around my forearm, then a few more times around my hand so I can hold it.

The head Teffillin. The one with two straps is placed just above my hairline, front and center. And the straps go behind my head. So the knot is just above the base of my skull. Now I can finish off tying the strap on my arm by wrapping it three times around my middle finger. The rest I can just wrap around my hand so it doesn't flap all over the place. The strap should be just tight enough that I can feel my pulse, but not too tight. This all goes back to a verse in the book of Deuteronomy, in which God says that his words are to be on your heart. Tie them on your hand as a sign. Put them at the front of a headband around your forehead. So many Jews do just that, while they pray to remind themselves of the importance of God's words in the Torah. In more orthodox communities. This is only done by men and boys. But in Reform Judaism, women can use them too. Although actually reform, Jews are less likely to use them when they pray. This is to symbolize that I worship God with my head and my heart, with all of me, my brains, my feelings and my actions.

Judaism: Tefillin

Video length - 3.19
Published date - Apr 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources
An Anglican vicar often wears special robes called “vestments” during services, so we arranged a short fashion show to explain what each one is called!

Holy Cribs – The Vicar’s Vestments

Shanice:  Church of England vicars often wear a white collar to let people know who they are and what they do. This is called a clerical collar or a Roman collar, but most people just call it a dog collar because that's what it looks like. For church services, a vicar often wears special clothes called vestments, which make every service and occasion. Over her everyday clothes, the vicar wears a long black gown or coats called a cassock. This is a sort of uniform that vicars and priests have worn for centuries. Over that, she wears a white gown called a surplice, and that's a symbol of purity. Around her neck, she wears a long scarf called a stole, and that's to show that she is an ordained priest. In other words, she's done all the training, had some experience, and is blessed by God to serve his people. The vicar wears different colour stoles at different times of the year. Most of the time it's green. But she wears a purple one during Lent, which is the time leading up to Easter. And Advent, which is the time leading up to Christmas. On Easter Day and Christmas Day, she wears a white stole and she'll wear that for weddings and funerals as well. There's also a red or brightly coloured one to wear on a festival called Pentecost and at other special occasions. But she's most comfortable like this.

 

Christianity: The Vicar’s Vestments

Video length - 02.08
Published date - Mar 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

Shanice demonstrates what happens during Holy Communion and explains why sharing bread and wine in this special ceremony is so important to Christians.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices - Christianity - The sacrament of Holy Communion/ Eucharist and its significance for Christians, including different ways it’s celebrated and different interpretations of its meaning

Area of Study 3 – Christianity - Section 3: Living the Christian Life - The role of the sacraments in Christian life and their practice in two denominations: the role of the sacraments/ordinance as a whole; the Eucharist in at least two denominations.

Component Group 1 - Christianity - Practices - Sacraments• The meaning of the word sacrament • The role and meaning of the sacraments •The role of Baptism and Eucharist in the life of a Christian •Common and divergent attitudes towards the practice and meaning of Baptism by different Christian denominations •Common and divergent attitudes towards the practice and meaning of the Eucharist by different Christian denominations •Common and divergent attitudes towards the Sacraments,including which practices are considered by different Christian denominations to be a sacrament •Different interpretations and emphases given to sources of wisdom and authority by different Christian denominations

2.2 Unit 2 PART A : Christianity - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices Life’s Journey: Sacraments and key acts of worship:  Baptisms (Mark 1:9-11); Infant and Believers' Baptism; reasons and rituals  Eucharist/Communion (1 Corinthians 11:23-26): diverse Christian interpretations and associated practices

2.2 Unit 2 - PART A - Christianity - Core beliefs, teachings and practices -- Practices Life’s Journey: Sacraments and key acts of worship:  Baptisms (Mark 1:9-11); Infant and Believers' Baptism; reasons and rituals  Eucharist/Communion (1 Corinthians 11:23-26): diverse Christian interpretations and associated practices  Confirmation - preparation and ceremony (Acts 2: 1-13)  Significance of a religious wedding (Mark 10:7-9): matrimonial symbols and vows 2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Christianity - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices - Church - Importance of prayer, communal and private - Matthew 6:5-13, Matthew 18:20

Holy Cribs: Holy Communion

Shanice:  The Christian church is divided up into different groups called denominations. There's the Roman Catholic Church, the Methodist Church, the Baptist Church, and the Presbyterian Church, just to name a few. I'm from the Church of England, also called the Anglican Church. All Christians follow the Bible's teachings. But one church might have slightly different understandings of it to another or worship in a different way. But all churches have a regular service when Christians will gather together to share bread and wine. In the Church of England, this is usually known as Holy Communion. But it can also be called the breaking of the bread, The Lord's Supper, Mass or Eucharist. We do this because Jesus told us to. It all goes back to the Last Supper, the last meal that Jesus ate with his disciples before he was crucified. He asked them to share the bread and wine as a way to remember him when he was gone. The bread represented his broken body and the deep red colour of the wine represented the blood he was to shed on the cross. In the Church of England, we use real wine, but other churches might use red grape juice instead. And we use wafers which are small round disks of white rice paper. But some churches use real bread or crackers. The priest will say special prayers over the bread and wine, asking God to bless them. In the Church of England, people usually go up to the front of the church where they stand or kneel at a rail in front of the altar. They are given a wafer or a small piece of bread from a special plate called a paten. Then each person is offered a large cup called a chalice, and they take a sip of wine. In other churches, like the Baptist church, everyone stays in their seats and the bread and wine or grape juice are passed along the rows from person to person. However it's done, the reasons for doing it are the same, to remember the sacrifice that Jesus made of himself on the cross. It's a reminder to Christians that they should be doing their best to live as Jesus would want them to.

Christianity: Holy Communion

Video length - 03.07
Published date - Mar 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources

Watch Azeen practise and describe a rak’ah – the positions that Muslims perform during prayer.

Component 1: The study of religions: beliefs, teaching and practices – Beliefs and teachings - Islam - Salah and its significance: how and why Muslims pray including times, directions, ablution (wudu), movements (rak’ahs) and recitations; salah in the home and mosque and elsewhere; Friday prayer: Jummah; key differences in the practice of salah in Sunni and Shi’a Islam, and different Muslim views about the importance of prayer.

Area of Study 3 – Islam Section 1: Muslim Beliefs - Salah as one of the Five Pillars, including reference to Surah 15: 98–99 and 29: 45: the nature, history, significance and purpose of Salah for Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, including different ways of understanding them; how Salah is performed including ablution, times, directions, movements and recitations, in the home and mosque and Jummah prayer."

Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah - Component Group 1–Practices - Islam - Public acts of worship - Salah as direct communication with Allah. The importance of practices - Islam as a way of life, lived in total submission to Allah • The importance of the Five Pillars of Islam to Sunni Muslims • The meaning of the Five Pillars: •• Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith •• Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day •• Zakat/Zakah: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the needy •• Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan •• Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca • The analogy of the house and pillars

2.1 Unit 1 PART A - Part A Islam - Core beliefs, teachings and practices - Practices - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam -Prayer/ Salat  Adhan call to prayer, praying at mosque and Friday Jummah prayer (Qur'an 15:9899, 29:45)  Praying at home, private prayer (Du'ah)  The preparations and intention for prayer: wudu and niyyah  The significance and symbolism of the different prayer positions that make a rakat (sequence of prayer) Obligatory Acts  Shahadah: the Muslim profession of faith in Allah and the prophet Muhammad; occasions when the Shahadah is recited, e.g. aqiqah ceremony, conversion to Islam  Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit others, what zakat tax may be used for, and additional charity (saddaqah)  Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan. How and why Muslims fast during Ramadan and rules about halal and haram diet (Qur'an 2:183)

2.3 Component 3 (Route A) - Option 3: Islam - The Five Pillars of Sunni Islam: practices in Britain and elsewhere - Salah: the practices of prayer in Islam in the mosque and at home, including Jummah prayer: Qur'an 15:98-99, Qur'an 29:45

Holy Cribs – Prayer Positions

Azeen:    Salah the duty to pray five times a day. We could do it anywhere as long as we've done a wudu and the place we're in is clean and we've got the space to do the movements I'm about to show you. In the prayer hall of a mosque. The carpet is often marked with rectangles for people to stand in or lines across a floor, so everyone has enough space to pray and do the movements without bumping into the people around them. At home I just use a prayer mat. When we pray, we must face the direction of the Ka'bah, which is a cube shaped holy building in the center Makkah in Saudi Arabia. This direction is called the qibla and in a mosque you could tell the qibla by facing the mihrab, which is an archway in the wall at the front of the prayer hall. We pray five times a day. And as well as saying the words in Arabic, we also show our devotion to Allah. First, I should have the intention to pray, which is called the niyyah. So I focus and get myself into the right frame of mind. Then I say Bismillah and the prayer begins. I raised my hands and then lowered them while I say Allahu Akbar. This is called takbir. I'll stand and this is called qiyam. Then I bow from the waist. This is called ruku. Then comes sujud or sajdah, when I kneel down and put my forehead on the floor. This is called prostration in English. I return to the kneeling position called jalsa. Then I prostrate again. And finish in the kneeling position. And that series of movements is called a raka'ah. I'll stand and do more rak'ah's and the number depends on which prayer I'm saying. Each of the positions goes a bit further in showing total submission to Allah. When the prayer is finished and I'm kneeling at the end of the final rak'ah I turn to my right and then my left to say, salam. Peace be with you. After the prayer in Arabic. I can also say my personal prayers in English. And this is called du'a.

 

Islam: Prayer Positions

Video length - 02.55
Published date - Mar 2023
Keystage(s) - 2, 3 and 4
Downloadable resources